Sunday, September 05, 2004

Indologist Confirms Maize in Ancient Sculptures

Carl L. Johannessen and Anne Z. Parker, "Maize Ears Sculptured in 12th and 13th Century A.D. India as Indicators of Pre-Columbian Diffusion," Economic Botany 43 , 1989, 164-80, argue that stone carvings of maize ears exist in at least three pre-Columbian Hoysala stone block temples near Mysore, Karnataka state, India. Their article provides 16 photographs of a few of the sculptures in question.

Johannessen has now made three large-scale color photographs available online here (new URL 11/03), with a brief discussion. These photos reveal considerable detail that is lost in the reduced scale black and white reproductions that appeared in the journal article.

Further photographs appear in his 1998 article, "Maize Diffused to India before Columbus Came to America" (see references below).

In his 1998 article "Pre-Columbian American Sunflower and Maize Images in Indian Temples: Evidence of Contact between Civilizations in India and America" (see references below), Johannessen goes on to cite several appearances of the sunflower, another New World crop, in pre-Columbian Indian temple sculptures.


The following review has been published in the Midwest Epigraphic Journal, vol. 12/13, 1998-99, pp. 43-44. An earlier version appeared in 1998 on the newsgroup sci.archaeology.


Maize in Pre-Columbian India


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